When polyelectrolyte molecules are covalently linked to highly fluorescent dyes, they can be visualised in e.g.:
- fluorescence spectrometer
- flow cytometer
- laser scanning microscope
With the confocal laser scanning microscopy, for example, the amount of labelled polymers adsorbed at a surface can be quantitatively determined, giving information on surface properties of materials (charge, porosity), flow conditions in tubes, deposit/sediment on catheters or in microfluidics, etc.