When polyelectrolyte molecules are covalently linked to fluorescent dyes, they can be monitored in a:
- fluorescence microscope
- laser scanning microscope
- fluorescence spectrometer
- flow cytometer and more
By means of a confocal laser scanning microscope, for example, the amount of labeled polymers adsorbed at a surface can be quantitatively determined, giving information on surface properties of materials (charge, porosity), flow conditions in tubes, deposit/sediment on catheters or in microfluidics, etc.